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Как научиться понимать топографическую съемку

Как научиться понимать топографическую съемку

2 методика:Использование систему границ и контуровUsing the Public Land Survey System

Различные типы землеустройства требуют различных способов чтения и интерпретации данных. Два из наиболее распространенных видов топографических съемок - это исследование контуров и границ частной собственности и исследования общественных мест. С небольшим руководством по чтению различных типов топографической съемки, вы сможете без труда понимать о чем в них говорится и использовать эти знания по своему усмотрению.



Шаги

Метод 1 из 2: Использование систему границ и контуров

  1. 1 Получите корректные данные. Система границ и контуров более точна чем например геодезическая съемка для определения границ собственности. поэтому, пркежде чем начать изучать данные, вам придется выйти на улицу и сделать измерение с помощью прибора.
    • Люди проводят подобные замерения по разным причинам, включая то, где нужно поставить забор или как расположить коммуникации, для соблюдения законов зонирования при строительстве бассейна или по каким-либо еще причинам.[1]
    • Геодезическая съемка предназначена для разделения общественного пространства.[2]
  2. 2 Познакомьтесь с навигацией компаса. Линии съемки определяются расстоянием и направлением.[3] Компасная система измерения позволяет дать наиболее точные данные измерения, потому что каждый градус из 360° может быт разделен на минуты (1/60 1°) и секунды (1/60 минуты), что позволяет 360° компасу быть посчитанным в секундах, а именно 1,296,000 секунд.[4]
    • Минуты и секунды выражены наряду с углом измерения, как например: 40° 59’ 59”. Данный пример читается как 40 градусов, 59 минут и 59 секунд и так как каждая минута разбита на 1/60.[5]
  3. 3 Изучите как правильно читать данные компаса. Since plotting a compass direction as a slice of 360° alone can be confusing, the bearings have a particular notation. The notation begins either with N for due north or S for due south.[6] The direction will then be followed by the compass degree notion from step 2, followed by W for west or E for east to denote how many degrees from due north or south the angle is.[7]
    • Например, N 15° 20’ 0” W значит что начиная с северной широты вы находитесь ровно в точке 15 градусов и 20 минут западной широты.[8] Это дает вам точный угол линии.
  4. 4 Правильно интерпретируйте дистанцию. Above takes care of the angle, but you also need to know a distance to tell you how long to follow that angle. Most surveyors, especially in the U.S., use feet as the general unit of distance; however, for increased accuracy, they may occasionally divide one foot into hundredths rather than simply into inches.[9]
    • В случае, где единичный шаг разделен на 100 частей, 1/100 шага очень приблженно равно 1/5 м.[10]
    • In the case of very old deeds, you may also see the distance listed as P. for poles and L. for links. A pole is 16.5 feet and a link is 7.92 inches.[11] A modern land surveyor will make the conversions for you.
  5. 5 Read a boundary line’s full notation. With all of the individual parts in place, you can now make sense of a boundary notation such as N 15° 20’ 0” W 154.5 Ft. Это значит, что начиная с севера ваш угол равен 15 градусам и 20 минутам к западу и затем вы можете использовать направление, что 154.5 feet, giving you a boundary line. Each direction and distance measurement is referred to as a leg.[12]
    • When you reach the end of the distance, you would move to the next leg (piece of notation), which would look the same as the first. It would require finding another angle and moving in that direction for another amount of distance, etc.
    • For instance, if your piece of property is a perfect rectangle in a subdivision, then the first line would take you from one corner past your driveway to the next corner before giving you the next leg, which would likely be a 90° turn.
  6. 6 Find the starting point. Now that you know how to read the notations, you can find the exact starting point on the survey by looking for a POB for point of beginning[13] or a COM meaning commence at.[14] Once you have the starting point, simply follow the exact angles and distances to find the exact boundaries of the property.
  7. 7 Read the legend as well. Like many maps, your survey may also include a legend. This legend will offer different notation for items such as streams, gas lines, water lines, etc.[15] These items are very important in determining water rights or even whether line breakages fall on your property, a neighbor’s property, or public property in cases where the responsibility is unclear.

Метод 2 из 2: Using the Public Land Survey System

  1. 1 Read the principal meridians and base lines. The public lands survey system (PLSS) divides government-owned public lands unlike the private property boundaries of the metes and bounds system. Though not exact lines of longitude and latitude, the system is based off thirty-seven north-south lines of principal meridian and their perpendicular east-west base lines.[16] A PLSS map of the united states will show a grid of these intersecting lines.
    • Due to each PLSS survey’s separate conduction, the lines of principal meridian were often chosen arbitrarily rather than at equal intervals.[17]
  2. 2 Find the township. From the larger lines, PLSS surveys divide lands into six-square-mile squares, each of which is called a township.[18] Based on the shown starting point of the survey, you can find a specific township based on the given notation.
    • The notation will look as such: T32N, R18E. This refers to the 32nd township (T32) north of the starting point and the 18th range (R18) east of the starting point.[19] Range simply means a vertical column of townships.[20]
    • To find the correct township, you simply count the rows up and columns over from the starting point.[21]
  3. 3 Find the section. Each township is divided into thirty-six equal sections, each comprised of one square mile or 640 acres.[22] Each section of the township is numbered starting in the top right corner going right to left before dropping to the next row down and going left to right—then right to left again in the third row, etc.[23]
    • For instance, the right-most column of sections in a township numbered in descending order would be: 1, 12, 13, 24, 25, and 36.[24]
  4. 4 Find the quarter section. To further subdivide parcels of public land, each one-square-mile section is divided into quarter sections.[25] When you get to quarter sections, the section is divided into four quadrants, and the quarter-section is described by using the cardinal quadrant directions.[26]
    • The upper left quarter of a section, for instance, would be described as the NW 1/4 of the section, which is also equivalent to 160 acres.[27]
  5. 5 Find the quarter-quarter section. To subdivide the spaces even further, each quarter section can similarly be divided into quarter-quarter sections, which receive the same four quadrant designations as the quarter section and reduce each space down to forty acres.[28]
  6. 6 Put it all together. When you look at the actual survey, the survey will use these notations to refer to very specific pieces of land. For example, you may see SE 1/4, SW 1/4, S24, T32N, R18E. To read this on the actual survey, you would actually start with the final coordinate (R18E) and work your way to the first coordinate (SE 1/4). Remember from above the R18E means the 18th range (column) east of the starting point, followed by the 32nd township north of the starting point. After which, you find section 24 (S24) in the coordinated township. From there, you locate the southwest quarter (SW 1/4) of the section and finally the southeast quarter-quarter (SE 1/4) of the quarter section.[29]
    • With regard to public lands, the PLSS is often used to describe specific portions of preserves, parks, wetland areas, etc. Many pieces of prior public lands that have since fallen into the private domain often keep similar rules of division for the purposes of zoning.[30]
    • PLSS surveys are often easier on which to find real life starting points because permanent "monuments” or markers are placed along many of the dividing lines.[31]

Советы

  • You may wish to walk around the property holding your land survey to get a better idea and feel of where the property boundaries are.
  • Ensure that any land surveyor you work with is fully licensed and registered to work in your state.
  • When using an actual compass, magnetic north and true north differ by region as well as over long stretches of time. The degree of adjustment between magnetic and true north is called declination. Your surveyor may include a north arrow with the declination included on your survey.[32] The National Geographical Data Center division of NOAA has a calculator for declination in your area at: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/geomag-web/#declination as well.
  • The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is the government’s official record keeper for surveys of public lands.[33]
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